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Standard 3: Critical Reading and Writing

Students will apply critical thinking skills to reading and writing.

 For more specific genre information, please refer to Genre Guidance (page 4 of the Support Documents.).


READINGStudents will comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and respond to a variety of complex texts of all literary and informational genres from a variety of historical, cultural, ethnic, and global perspectives.
9.3.R.6  Students will comparatively analyze the structures of texts (e.g., compare/contrast, problem/solution, cause/effect, claims/counterclaims/evidence) and content by inferring connections among multiple texts and providing textual evidence to support their inferences.

Student Actions 

Teacher Actions 

  • Students will read multiple texts on the same topic written in a variety of text structures.
  • Students will identify the structure used in each text.
  • Students will make inferences based on the structure and content of multiple works.
  • Students will support claims of the relationships between texts with textual evidence.


  • Teachers choose multiple texts about the same topic with different structures.
  • Teachers allow time for students to read these texts.
  • Teachers provide guidance as students identify the structure of each text.
  • Teachers provide opportunities for students to receive feedback about their identification of structures.
  • Teachers demonstrate how to connect the structure of a text to its content and meaning.
  • Teachers provide opportunities for students to find similarities and differences between texts of the same topic and/or theme.
  • Teachers provide opportunities for students to receive feedback about the connections they have established.
  • Teachers remind students to provide evidence from the texts to support their inferences between texts.
  • Teachers provide opportunities for students to support their claims.
  • Teachers provide opportunities for students to receive feedback about how textual evidence supports claims.

Supporting Resource

Teacher Insights


  • Different nonfiction text structures include:

    • compare/contrast = authors use comparisons to describe ideas; similarities and differences are shared

    • problem/solution = the text introduces and describes a problem and presents one or more solutions

    • cause/effect = describes events and identifies reasons (causes) for why that event happened

    • claims/counterclaims/evidence = Rogerian argument or Toulmin model argumentation styles

  • Comparatively analyzing text structure involves students looking at multiple compositions and identifying the structural elements and content in each.

    • Example: After reading multiple texts about the same subject/topic, but that are organized with different structures, students are to make inferences (logical conclusions) between those texts--what are similarities and differences?

Due to recursive nature of the standards, it is essential that teachers are aware of how all objectives within and between strands work together for optimal instruction.

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