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Standard 4: Vocabulary

Students will expand their working vocabularies to effectively communicate and understand texts.

READING: Students will expand academic, domain-appropriate, grade-level vocabularies through reading, word study, and class discussion.

10.4.R.4 Students will analyze the relationships among words with multiple meanings and recognize the connotation and denotation of words.

Student Actions 

Teacher Actions 

  • Students will determine the relationship among words in a sentence to discover the meaning of words that have multiple meanings.
  • Students will continue to determine connotation of specific words with multiple meanings based on how the words are used in a text.
  • Students will continue to determine the denotations of specific words with multiple meanings based on how words are used in a text. 
  • Teachers model how details in the text may reveal connotations of words.
  • Teachers model how to determine the precise meaning of words through the study of connotation and denotation.
  • Teachers provide opportunities for students to study the impact of words found in their reading.
  • Teachers provide opportunities for students to receive feedback on their analysis of words. 

Supporting Resources 

Teacher Insights 

ELA OAS Glossary pg 3-4
  • Multiple-meaning words are words that are spelled the same, are pronounced the same, but have different meanings that can be determined based on the context of the text. Multiple-meaning words can also be called homonyms.

    • Example: I will park the car so we can walk to the park.

    • Example: I left my phone on the left side of my desk.

    • Homonyms, homophones, and homographs are explained here.

  • Denotation is the literal or dictionary meaning of a word.

  • Connotation refers to a meaning that is implied by a word apart from the thing it describes explicitly.  Words carry cultural and emotional associations or meanings in addition to their literal meanings or denotations.

    • Example: Using odor vs. fragrance: both words have the same denotation. They both mean smell, but the connotation can be completely opposite.

    • When using reference material, students often want to choose the first definition they see. The context and implied tone must be considered when clarifying multiple meaning words.

  • The intent of this standard is for students to develop their vocabulary by analyzing the denotation and connotations of an author’s diction and articulating how that word choice impacts the text.

Due to recursive nature of the standards, it is essential that teachers are aware of how all objectives within and between strands work together for optimal instruction.

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