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8-5-W-3

Page history last edited by ernail@smps.k12.ok.us 2 years, 6 months ago

 

Standard 5: Language

Students will apply knowledge of grammar and rhetorical style to reading and writing.

 

WRITING: Students will demonstrate command of Standard English grammar, mechanics, and usage through writing and other modes of communication.

8.5.W.3 Students will use verbals (e.g., gerunds, participles, infinitives) in writing.

Student Actions 

Teacher Actions 

Verbals

  • Students will use verbals; gerunds, participles and infinitives, to express their ideas in written form.

  • Students practice replacing the gerund with another noun to determine if the sentence will still work grammatically.

Gerund

  • Students will understand a gerund is a noun made from a verb. Example: Walking the dog is not my favorite task.

  • Students practice replacing the gerund with another noun to determine if the sentence will still work grammatically.

Infinitive

  • Students will understand an infinitive has [to] before the verb. Example: To dance gracefully is my ambition.

  • Students examine text to determine that an infinitive is a simple verb combined with ‘to.’ For example: to sleep, to run, to fly, to hide

  • Students use the formula: Infinitive = to + verb

Participle

  • Students will understand a participle a verb form functioning as an adjective.

  • Students will understand a participle looks like a verb but functions as an adjective. Example: Swimming for his life, John made it to shore.

  • Students examine text to determine the noun the participle is modifying.

  • Verbals

    • Teachers explain and model the use of verbals in a sentences.

    • Teachers explain that using verbals is a way to add variety and interest to their writing.

    • Teachers provide opportunities for students to add verbals to their writing to create greater sentence variety and interesting structure of their writing.

    • Teachers ensure students can identify the main verb (action) of the sentence.

    • Teachers instruct students that there are three kinds of verbals: gerunds, participles, and infinitives.

  • Gerund

    • Teachers explain a gerund is using the –ing verb form that functions as a noun.

    • Teachers explain and model the job of a gerund (e.g., subject, object of the preposition, direct object, indirect object, predicate noun).

    • Teacher provide opportunities for students to create a gerund in their writing.

    • Teacher monitor and provide feedback for students when creating  gerunds in their writing.

    • Teachers explain and model that verb-like words are actually naming things (e.g., swimming can be action or a noun)

    • Teachers explain that not all -ing verbs are gerunds.  Sometimes -ing verbs are participles used in present or past progressive verb phrase. (e.g.,I am swimming.)

  • Infinitive

    • Teachers explain the infinitive is the word “to” plus a verb.

    • Teachers explain and model the job of an infinitive (e.g., adjective, adverb, or noun).

    • Teacher provide opportunities for students to create an infinitive in their writing.

    • Teacher monitor and provide feedback for students when creating infinitives in their writing.

    • Teachers model and explain an infinitive consist of the word to plus a verb functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb.  An infinitive may also function as a subject, direct object, subject complement, adjective, or adverb in a sentence.

  • Participle

    • Teachers explain that a participle is a verb form functioning as an adjective.

    • Teachers explain the jobs of a participle is to modify nouns or pronouns.

    • Teachers provide opportunities for students to create a participle in their writing.

    • Teacher monitor and provide feedback for students when creating  participles in their writing.

    • Teachers explain and model that a participle can be used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed.

    • Teachers explain and model how participles function as an adjective that modify a noun or pronoun.  

    • Teachers explain and model there are two types of participles; present participle and past participle.

    • Teachers explain present participles end in -ing and past participles end in -ed, -en,-t, -n, or -ne.

Supporting Resources 

Teacher Insights

 
  • Students will go beyond locating and labeling verbals; they must incorporate them into their writing

  • Verbal: a verb that is being used as a different part of speech.

  • A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun.

  • A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed.

  • An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb (in its simplest "stem" form) and functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb.

Due to recursive nature of the standards, it is essential that teachers are aware of how all objectives within and between strands work together for optimal instruction.

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