• If you are citizen of an European Union member nation, you may not use this service unless you are at least 16 years old.

  • Stop wasting time looking for files and revisions. Connect your Gmail, DriveDropbox, and Slack accounts and in less than 2 minutes, Dokkio will automatically organize all your file attachments. Learn more and claim your free account.



Page history last edited by Jami Huck 1 year, 10 months ago


Standard 2: Reading Foundations

Students will develop foundational skills for future reading success by working with sounds, letters, and text.


PHONICS AND WORD STUDY: Students will decode and read words in context and isolation by applying phonics and word analysis skills.

2.2.PWS.1 Students will decode one- and two­- syllable words by using their knowledge of:

  • single consonants, including those with two different sounds

         (e.g., soft and hard c [cent, cat] and g [gem,goat])

  • consonant blends (e.g., bl, br, cr)

  • consonant digraphs and trigraphs (e.g., sh-, -tch)

  • vowel sounds:

    • long

    • short

    • “r”­ controlled vowels (e.g., ar, er, ir or, ur)

  • vowel spelling patterns:

    • vowel digraphs (e.g., ea, oa, ee)

    • vowel-consonant-silent-e (e.g., lake)

    • vowel diphthongs (vowel combinations having two vowel sounds e.g., oi as in boil, oy as in boy)

Student Actions 

Teacher Actions 

  • Students will decode phonetically regular words using knowledge of consonant sounds, blends, digraphs, trigraphs, short and long vowel sounds, and vowel patterns. 




  •  Teachers use phonics to teach sounds of letters and groups of letters.
  • Teachers explain principles that govern the sounds and spelling patterns of regular decodable words.

  • Teachers model using knowledge of phonics and phonics rules to decode words.

  • Teachers provide students opportunities to apply knowledge of phonics and principles to decode words in isolation and in texts.

  • Teacher monitor and provide opportunities for students to receive feedback to help students successfully decode regular words.

Supporting Resources 

Teacher Insights 

Teaching Decoding by Louisa C. Moats (PDF)

FCRR:  Word Work Activities (PDF)

FCRR:  Vowel Team Activities (PDF)

TPRI:  Graphophonemic Knowledge Activities (webpage to PDFs)

West Virginia Reading First Explicit Phonics Lessons (PDF)

Explicit, Systematic Phonics Lessons, Scope & Sequence Materials (webpage)

Reading Rockets:  Phonics Instruction (webpage)

Reading Rockets:  The Value of a Multisensory Approach (webpage)



  • Explicit, systematic approaches to phonics instruction include the following:

    • Preplanned scope and sequence

    • Easy to more difficult

    • Cumulative reviews

    • Guided to independent practice

  • Word sorts give students exposure and experience with words that contain a specific spelling pattern.

  • Consonant blends are two to three consonants that appear together in a word. The consonants in blends retain their original sound and are blended together when decoding a word.  

  • A diphthong is a sound made by combining two vowels, specifically when it starts as one vowel sound and goes to another.

  • A digraph is a combination of two letters representing one sound, as in ph and ey.

  • A trigraph is a combination of three letters representing one sound, as -tch and sch-.

  • r-controlled - A syllable with er, ir, or, ar, or ur. Pronunciation of the vowel usually changes before /r/.

  • vowel silent e - A syllable with a long vowel, spelled with one vowel + one consonant + silent e.  Com-pete, des-pite

  • Word sorts give students exposure and experience with words that contain a specific spelling pattern.

Due to recursive nature of the standards, it is essential that teachers are aware of how all objectives within and between strands work together for optimal instruction.

Back to Homepage

Back to 2nd Grade Introduction

Back to 2nd Grade ELA Standards

Comments (0)

You don't have permission to comment on this page.