Standard 2: Reading Foundations

Students will develop foundational skills for future reading success by working with sounds, letters, and text.


PHONICS AND WORD STUDY: Students will decode and read words in context and isolation by applying phonics and word analysis skills.

K.2.PWS.4 Students will blend letter sounds to decode simple Vowel / Consonant (VC) and Consonant / Vowel / Consonant (CVC) words (e.g., VC words= at, in, up; CVC words = pat, hen, lot).

Student Actions 

Teacher Actions 

  • Students will produce, then blend sounds to read simple short vowel words.

    • Vowel Consonant words (VC- in, at, on)

    • Consonant Vowel Consonant words (CVC- get, mat, sit).




  • Teachers model blending, beginning with VC words then moving on to CVC words, using letter cards or tiles or written words.  Say each sound while touching the letter, then sweeping across the letters from left to right while blending letter sounds.  Letter cards or tiles can be used with Elkonin boxes to teach blending.

  • Teachers provide daily opportunities for students to sound out and blend words.

  • Teachers provide guidance and practice for blending in whole and small group situations.

  • Teachers monitor and provide feedback to students to ensure they are properly blending sounds into words.   Students who have trouble blending may use additive blending, where students blend the first and second sounds, then add any additional sounds one at a time.

Supporting Resources 

Teacher Insights 

Florida Center for Reading Research:  Encoding and Decoding Activities (PDF) 

Teaching Decoding by Louisa C. Moats (PDF)

Word Work Activities (PDF)

West Virginia Reading First Explicit Phonics Lessons (PDF)

Explicit, Systematic Phonics Lessons, Scope & Sequence Materials (webpage)

Reading Rockets:  Phonics Instruction (webpage)

Reading Rockets:  The Value of a Multisensory Approach (webpage)


  • Students need explicit instruction on letter-sound correspondence.

  • Begin with two sound words (VC), then move to three sound words (CVC).

  • “I do, we do, you do” model of instruction provides a structure for guided and independent practice.

  • Begin with phonemic awareness lesson in which students identify the beginning sound or students may give thumbs up for words beginning with target sound.

  • If students are ready, move to medial sound identification of target sound.

Due to recursive nature of the standards, it is essential that teachers are aware of how all objectives within and between strands work together for optimal instruction.

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