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Page history last edited by Jami Huck 2 years, 1 month ago

Standard 2: Reading Foundations

Students will develop foundational skills for future reading success by working with sounds, letters, and text.


PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS: Phonological awareness is the ability to recognize, think about, and manipulate sounds in spoken language without using text. 

K.2.PA.6 Students will blend and segment onset and rime in one syllable spoken words

(e.g., Blending: /ch/ + at = chat; segmenting: cat = /c/+ at).

Student Actions 

Teacher Actions 


  • Students will blend beginning sound and remaining chunk to create single syllable words (e.g., /b/ + ig).  


  • Teachers explain blending sounds to create words ie, “Words are made up of individual or groups of sounds.”.

  • Teachers model blending beginning sound with rime or word family. *Initial blending activities are easier when beginning sound is a continuant sound that can be produced for a longer period of time.  Examples of letters with continuant sounds are f, l, m, s, v, z.

  • Teachers may introduce hand gestures or manipulatives to help students understand.  Example:  Make a fist for beginning sound and fist for rime or word family, then swing the beginning sound fist into the other fist while blending.

  • Teachers provide daily opportunities for blending practice with guidance and feedback.

Supporting Resources 

Teacher Insights 

Reading Rockets:  Onset/Rime Game (webpage)

Florida Center for Reading Research:  Onset and Rime Activities(PDF)

TPRI:  Blending Onset and Rime with Pictures (PDF)

Rime and Rhyme (webpage)

FCRR: Onset and Rime Activities (PDF)

Introduce Onset and Rime Blending (webpage)

Phonological Awareness Hand Motion Examples (PDF)


  • The onset is the initial phonological unit of a word, including all the consonants that occur before the vowel.

    • /c/ is the onset of cat and /ch/ is the onset of chat.

  • The rime is a vowel plus the consonants that follow the vowel (e.g., -at is the rime in cat and chat).

  • When students are able to combine the onset and rime sounds to produce recognizable words they are developing the skill of blending.

  • Students’ blending skills are highly predictive of how well they will learn to read.  

  • Students should develop the skill of blending syllables before beginning to blend onset and rime.

  • Students at this developmental stage should have many verbal opportunities to play with language.

  • Oral development is essential to early literacy development.

  • When working with onset and rime with this age of students, the focus should be on the sound and not the print elements.

  • Often there is a confusion between rime and rhyme. Rimes are the spelling patterns that are spelled and sound alike. Rhymes, on the other hand, sound alike, but may not have the same spelling patterns, such as hey and May or bite and fight. 

Due to recursive nature of the standards, it is essential that teachers are aware of how all objectives within and between strands work together for optimal instruction.

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