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Page history last edited by Jami Huck 2 years, 1 month ago

Standard 2: Reading Foundations

Students will develop foundational skills for future reading success by working with sounds, letters, and text.


PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS: Phonological awareness is the ability to recognize, think about, and manipulate sounds in spoken language without using text. 

K.2.PA.4 Students will recognize the short or long vowel sound in one syllable words.

Student Actions 

Teacher Actions 

  • Students will identify short or long vowels sounds in any position in a spoken one syllable word.  
  • Teachers review short and long vowel sounds with students and remind students of the importance of vowels.  
  • Teachers model identifying the vowel in a one syllable word by segmenting sounds in the word using squares or chips and Elkonin boxes or using hand motion for vowels in medial position.  Example:  Hand motion for finding medial vowel sound in one syllable words -start low and move your hand up, over, and down, creating an arch, while saying a one syllable word.  Begin and end quietly, stress the vowel sound at the top of the arch.  Students identify with shooting a rocket while doing the motion.

  • Teachers provide opportunities for students to practice identifying the vowel sound in one syllable words.  

  • Teachers monitor ability to find vowel sound and provide opportunities for students to receive feedback as needed. 

Supporting Resources 

Teacher Insights 

The Vowel Song:  Long and Short Vowel Sounds (video)

Long and Short Vowels sorting Activity (PDF) 


  • Phonological awareness is the ability to recognize, think about, and manipulate sounds in spoken language without using text.
  • Model short vowels by curving hand like a breve (smile) and placing on head. Barely tap head while making a short vowel sound. Talk about how the sound is very short, tell students to make breve (hand smile) and practice tapping their head briefly while making short vowel sounds. 
  • Model long vowels by placing straight hand (macron) on head and pressing down.  Tell students the macron makes the vowel say its name. Press down on head with flat hand while saying long vowel sounds.  Ask students to do the same.
  • Use the hand motions* and clues during short and long vowel activities to give students cues that help students distinguish between long and short vowels.       

Due to recursive nature of the standards, it is essential that teachers are aware of how all objectives within and between strands work together for optimal instruction.

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