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Page history last edited by Jami Huck 2 years, 1 month ago


Standard 2: Reading Foundations

Students will develop foundational skills for future reading success by working with sounds, letters, and text.


PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS: Phonological awareness is the ability to recognize, think about, and manipulate sounds in spoken language without using text. 

K.2.PA.1 Students will distinguish spoken words in a sentence.

Student Actions 

Teacher Actions 

  • Students will recognize that a sentence is made up of separate words by repeating words in a given sentence, pausing between each word, and using actions or manipulatives to represent words. 
  • Teachers speak or read aloud sentences purposefully pausing between words.

  • Teachers model using manipulatives or actions to represent words in sentences.

  • Teachers provide opportunities for students to practice using manipulatives or actions to represent words in sentences.

  • Teachers provide opportunities for students to repeat words in a sentence.

  • Teachers monitor and provide opportunities for students to receive feedback when distinguishing spoken words in a sentence.

Supporting Resources 

Teacher Insights 

ABCs of Phonemic Awareness (webpage)

Florida Center for Reading Research:  Sentence Segmentation (PDF)

Developing Concept of Word (PDF)


  • Distinguishing spoken words is the prerequisite skill for understanding concept of words, which is the ability of a reader to match spoken words to written words while reading. Students with a concept of words understand that each word is separate and that words are separated by spaces within each sentence.  The skill of distinguishing spoken words begins to develop through oral instruction.  
  • As students begin this skill, they often confuse counting words with counting syllables. Use single syllable words until students have a better understanding so that they are not counting syllables.
  • This objective is intended for students to distinguish at the spoken word level, not in written text.
  • Begin with single syllable words so that students are not confusing words with syllables.

Due to recursive nature of the standards, it is essential that teachers are aware of how all objectives within and between strands work together for optimal instruction.

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